Was reconstruction a success or failure debate

Was reconstruction a success or failure debate

Many people had different views and ideas about Reconstruction. Some people believed that the states should be treated as territories, and others believed that the southern leaders should be punished instead of the states.

Still, others believed that the South still. Reconstruction was a time period of many different leaders, different goals and different accomplishments. Many debate whether Reconstruction was a success or failure.

was reconstruction a success or failure debate

Success is an event which accomplishes its intended purpose, which Reconstruction did, but during this process of accomplishment, evil came about. There was many good things that came from the Reconstruction era which leads me to believe that it was a success, these. That alone can show the significance of this document but the history of how the constitution was created adds to exemplify how important the constitution really is. After the revolution the states knew that they.

Peter Uvin, currently the Vice President for Academic Affairs and Dean of Faculty at the Claremont McKenna College and former aid worker himself, was one of the pioneers to openly debate the effect of the foreign intervention on conflicts. The Civil War is by far the bloodiest war in American history.

In the four deadly years of war, over six-hundred how to create a form in access Americans were killed. Many disputes that led to the civil war. These conflicts started even before the presidency of James Buchanan, who was a Democrat elected in the election of When I began the semester, I felt I was staunchly in the social.

Confine your answer to the period — Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Analyze the roles that women played in Progressive Era reforms from the s through Focus your essay on TWO of the following. This essay will first determine the social and political goals of the Klan, than analyze how successful they were in attaining them.

The source that proved most useful during the research process for this paper was the non-fiction White Terror by Allen W. Civil War due to the sheer number of deaths and the complete reconstruction of the nation during the aftermath. Just as important as the war itself would be the transformations that took place among the people was a newfound lack of compromise concerning the admission of new territories and whether or not they would be free or slave.

This failure to agree was chiefly the fear of public and congressional imbalance. This and dispute over the legitimacy and abuse of popular sovereignty would cause quarrels.

was reconstruction a success or failure debate

America was divided in two, the south; which promoted the act of slavery and the north; where individuals encouraged the abolishment of the discriminating structure. As a result of those southern states that rejoined the Union, African Americans were …show more content….

Though, one of the aims of Lincolns plan was achieved there was still the question of what to do with the salves and their freedom, an issue that was not as adequately solved as the problem surrounding the divided sates.

For example, even though black Americans, in the eyes of the law, were granted citizenship and awarded the same rights as white Americans this was not a de facto change in the political sense.To integrate Southern culture and values into the larger American culture and society. In part, the South fought the Civil War believing that its "way of life" was incompatible with Northern and American culture. But not everyone agreed that these were the four major tasks of Reconstruction.

The debate among historians about the success or failure of Reconstruction arises in part because there is no common agreement on what the larger goals of Reconstruction were. Before we can understand the debate over Reconstruction, we need to understand some of the larger historical events that shaped it. Historians often divide up Reconstruction into three historical phases or period:. By the s, in part caused by the growth of the Civil Rights movement, historians began to re-evaluate Reconstruction.

Was it really the failure that earlier historians and Southern whites claimed it was. In the s and s, led by historians like Kenneth Stamp, American historians argued that 2 Reconstruction was a limited success, not the absolute failure that earlier historians had claimed it was. By claiming that Reconstruction was a success, these historians were, in part, challenging the racist arguments that had justified Southern White brutality toward Blacks and the one-party domination of the South by the Democratic party.

If Reconstruction was a limited success then Southern economic and political elites could no longer justify their brutal, undemocratic domination of Southern society and culture.

However, by the late s and s, another historical perspective on Reconstruction was put forward. Led by historians like Eric Foner, they argued that 3 Reconstruction was a tragic failure because it did not protect Blacks' rights and heal the racial divisions caused by centuries of American slavery and the Civil War. Foner argues that despite the economic and political reforms created by Reconstruction, the failure to integrate Blacks as full members of American society. Let's now look at Stampp's argument for seeing Reconstruction as a limited success.


Stampp begins his argument by noting the earlier view of Reconstruction as a failure. In his essay, he will present arguments and concrete evidence that. Stampp argues that 1 Reconstruction made the South more democratic by granting freed Blacks "the same civil and political rights as white men" and by allowing all Whites--whether they own property or not--and Blacks to vote.

He now argues that 2 Reconstruction provided public education for the first time in Southern history to all Whites and Blacks. This education would allow poor Whites and Blacks to acquire the knowledge they needed to understand and fully participate as citizens in their society.After you watch the video and know the material, click HERE for the quiz. Reconstruction of the South following the American Civil War lasted from - under three presidents.

It wasn't welcomed by Southerners, and there were many problems throughout this process. But was it successful? As the Civil War was drawing to a close inPresident Lincoln began making plans for the physical, economic, social and political rehabilitation of a region marked by four years of war and years of racism.

Republicans in the federal government felt responsible for restoring public infrastructure, private property, food production, medical care and housing - all while the workforce and economy were in shambles. Furthermore, they wanted to change many characteristics of Southern society and politics. Even though most of the programs were aimed at helping the South, many white Southerners resented the suggestion that their world needed to be reconstructed at all and fought against any changes imposed on them by Republicans, Northerners or anyone in the federal government.

This struggle to rebuild Southern government, society, infrastructure and economy was called Reconstructionand it dominated political debate for 12 years under three different presidents. President Lincoln's original goal in the Civil War was to hold the nation together.

And in this, the war and Reconstruction were a success. The Confederacy was destroyed for good, and every state that had seceded was readmitted to the Union. In fact, the Civil War went a step further in terms of public thought.

And after the war it was always 'the United States is,' as we say today without being self-conscious at all. And that sums up what the war accomplished. It made us an 'is. The federal government outlawed slavery with the 13th Amendment, defined citizenship and protected all Americans under the law with the 14th Amendment and extended suffrage to all men in the 15th Amendment.

was reconstruction a success or failure debate

Federal legislation, like the Freedman's Bureau and the Civil Rights Act, worked to get African Americans back on their feet and participating equally in the government, society and economy. Black men were elected to every level of government, including governors and senators. All of the Southern states drafted new constitutions and ratified the Reconstruction Amendments. Many African Americans participated in new state and local governments, which worked for equal rights and to rebuild or create services like schools, railroads, hospitals, housing, roads and asylums.

Charitable organizations and individuals - especially Northerners - worked to improve literacy and education for African Americans. Businessmen opened new industries, like steel, cotton and lumber mills to revitalize the economy. New cultural venues opened. Black institutions and churches gained autonomy. Despite these many achievements, Reconstruction faced tremendous challenges, many of them but not all of them because of white resistance.

In the early years of Reconstruction, the new state governments had many competent but inexperienced leaders. A few were carpetbaggers motivated by greed and corruption. Southern whites were often uncooperative with new legislation passed by blacks or Yankees.

The vigilante groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, emerged to maintain white supremacy and intimidate black voters or any whites who supported them. And although there was some industrialization, the region remained committed to an agricultural economy and used sharecropping as a legal means to ensure that blacks would still work the land that whites still owned.

As soon as former Confederates had their right to vote restored, so-called 'Redeemers' won public office and began to systematically undo most of the social and economic reforms. They passed voting restrictions and 'Black Codes' to suppress the rights and opportunities of African Americans at the state and local levels. Jim Crow laws made segregation legal. The Supreme Court supported these actions, generally saying that the 14th and 15th Amendments only applied at the federal level.

And though the Radical Republicans had worked for nearly a decade to secure equal rights, the House of Representatives changed hands in Reconstructionin U. Long portrayed by many historians as a time when vindictive Radical Republicans fastened black supremacy upon the defeated ConfederacyReconstruction has since the late 20th century been viewed more sympathetically as a laudable experiment in interracial democracy.

At the national level, new laws and constitutional amendments permanently altered the federal system and the definition of American citizenship. In the Southa politically mobilized black community joined with white allies to bring the Republican Party to power, and with it a redefinition of the responsibilities of government. The Reconstruction era was the period after the American Civil War from toduring which the United States grappled with the challenges of reintegrating into the Union the states that had seceded and determining the legal status of African Americans.

Presidential Reconstruction, from torequired little of the former Confederate states and leaders. Radical Reconstruction attempted to give African Americans full equality. The Reconstruction era redefined U.

While U. During a brief period in the Reconstruction era, African Americans voted in large numbers and held public office at almost every level, including in both houses of Congress. However, this provoked a violent backlash from whites who did not want to relinquish supremacy. The backlash succeeded, and the promises of Reconstruction were mostly unfulfilled.

The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were unenforced but remained on the books, forming the basis of the midth-century civil rights movement. The national debate over Reconstruction began during the Civil War. In Decemberless than a year after he issued the Emancipation ProclamationPres. To Lincoln, the plan was an attempt to weaken the Confederacy rather than a blueprint for the postwar South. It was put into operation in parts of the Union-occupied Confederacy, but none of the new governments achieved broad local support.

In Congress enacted and Lincoln pocket vetoed the Wade-Davis Billwhich proposed to delay the formation of new Southern governments until a majority of voters had taken a loyalty oath.

Johnson offered a pardon to all Southern whites except Confederate leaders and wealthy planters although most of these subsequently received individual pardonsrestoring their political rights and all property except slaves.

He also outlined how new state governments would be created. Apart from the requirement that they abolish slavery, repudiate secession, and abrogate the Confederate debt, these governments were granted a free hand in managing their affairs. Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Sen. Charles Sumner from Massachusetts called for the establishment of new Southern governments based on equality before the law and universal male suffrage. But the more numerous moderate Republicans hoped to work with Johnson while modifying his program.

The first extended the life of an agency Congress had created in to oversee the transition from slavery to freedom. The second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens, who were to enjoy equality before the law. Arguably the most important addition to the Constitution other than the Bill of Rightsthe amendment constituted a profound change in federal-state relations.

Congress decided to begin Reconstruction anew. The Reconstruction Acts of divided the South into five military districts and outlined how new governments, based on manhood suffrage without regard to racewere to be established.

Thus began the period of Radical or Congressional Reconstruction, which lasted until the end of the last Southern Republican governments in By all the former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union, and nearly all were controlled by the Republican Party.Worried about plagiarism?

Read this. Help Login Sign Up. The Reconstruction Period was a time of great hardship for the United States. The Reconstruction was a time when the government thought that all people needed human rights even African Americans. Until this point African Americans had no rights. They were still considered less than a full person in a society that proclaimed that all of God's people are created equal.

The national debate over reconstruction began during the civil war. Laws were put into place that gave African American rights but they failed drastically. The reconstruction was definitely a failure because of the Jim Crow laws. As the era of slavery, most black southerners remained in a cycle of poverty that allowed almost no escape.

Reconstruction Successes and Failures

African Americans still lacked property, economic opportunity and political power. Some ex-slaves wished to work their own land. Federal government sometimes granted land to blacks. Former slaveowners tried to impose contract labor. But still blacks insisted on sharecropping.

Blacks formed the majority of the Republican Party in the South. Enter more info here about the house and congress all that. During the Reconstruction was increasingly segregated.

The South designed black codes to return blacks to semi-slavery. Much violence and discrimination continued on a large scale during Reconstruction. Jim Crow gave much contribution to the segregation in America. The Jim Crow laws legalized segregation and restricted black civil rights.

The North and Federal government did little or nothing to prevent these laws. There were secret societies that sought to keep blacks out of political processes as well as to oppress them.

These terrorist organizations also brought insurrections against state governments. After the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, southern state government and terrorist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan denied African Americans the right to vote. As a result blacks were lynched yearly from Reconstruction was an effort to reunite a nation shattered by civil war, build a new society in the South on the ashes of slavery, and bring into being for the first time in our history an interracial democracy.

The successes and failures of Reconstruction hold many lessons for our own time. The era reminds us that the liberation of four million people from bondage did not suddenly erase the deep racial prejudices born of slavery, nor assure lasting political or economic equality for the former slaves.

Yet Reconstruction also points to the possibility of moving beyond racism toward a more just society. And the mobilization of former slaves to demand their rights as Americans is an example of how ordinary people can help to change history. Yet this itself offers a timely lesson — that there is nothing inevitable or predetermined in the onward march of freedom and equality.

Reconstruction and its aftermath remind us that rights in the Constitution are not self-enforcing, and that our liberties can never be taken for granted.

Reconstruction has long been misrepresented, or simply neglected, in our schools, and unlike Confederate generals and founders of the Ku Klux Klan, few if any monuments exist to the black and white leaders of that era. Fortunately, the National Park Service has just announced an initiative to identify ways of bringing attention to Reconstruction in its historical sites.

Join Opinion on Facebook and follow updates on twitter. What can be done to create a public memory of Reconstruction? Kidada E. Jamelle Bouie, Slate magazine. Thavolia Glymph, Duke University. Emily Blanck, author, "Tyrannicide". Allyson Hobbs, author, "A Chosen Exile". Please upgrade your browser. See next articles. The Opinion Pages. Downs and Kate Masur. Related Discussions. New Terms for Nafta?CreateDebate is a social debate community built around ideas, discussion and democracy.

If this is your first time checking out a debate, here are some quick tips to help get you started:. With all that you learned from the activities about Reconstruction and its effects, From the South to Iraq, is the U. Think Social, Political, and economic objectives. I change my mind. Iraqi recnstruction WAS a failure because we are still fighting. Were not done fighting over there and in order to reconstruct we need to be out of the war. What proof do you have? You can't just throw out a blanket statement and not defend it.

You need to find examples. The iraqies oil industry droped when we invaded and it still hasnt gone back up so now not as much money is going into iraq so they cant finance theselves.

Debate over if the Reconstruction Era was Failure Essay

There is groups that oppose the reconstructions today. For Iraq, the main group with hate against the americans and their buisness in the middle east is Al Qaeda. In the south, it is the KKK and they kill black people and don't want change. The reconstructions were not successful because of all the hate by the people.

There is still people fighting in both areas. Okayy, I agree and disagree on this one. Bunches of people are racist, they aren't just from the south. I actually have a friend from the south, not racist. And we still technically help the south, yes they are greedy. And Iraq has hates the U. S for a long time, I don't really think that will ever change. But the south was better the Iraq.

But there are also people in the south and in Iraq who don't hate us but they can stand up for what they believe in. The reunification of the Union. This seperation lasted 4 years, and Reconstruction had brought them together and restored what we know as the United States. The Reconstruction brought many offers to the South as well as to the North since it proposed to collaborate in order to make a better place.

was reconstruction a success or failure debate

These protected the rights of the newly freedmen, and accpeted them as men, having the right to vote, and speak. More on 8. Freedmen's Bureau and many other smaller associations were formed. These helped the ones in need to not be homeless and completely poor. Blah blah on what it did, did it work and how do you know it did or didnot? The Iraqi reconstruction was a success because it heled us to keep the government from going corrupt, it helped them get their economy going again and in the long run it will help them become a better country.

I agree that the Civil War reconstruction was a success but the Iraqi reconstruction I felt was a failure because we are still fighting with them. We might be helping them out but we are still fighting.

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